InterPlanetary Networking Special Interest Group (IPNSIG) Rotating Header Image

Registration Open for Space Internet Governance Webinar

You may register for this Friday’s webinar at this link:

You will receive a confirming email with your unique link and passcode to use for entering the webinar.

Date: Friday, August 7th, 2020

Time: 1100 – 1230 hours Eastern Daylight Savings Time (EDT)


Dr. Vinton Cerf (one of the “Fathers of the Internet” and one of the driving forces in InterPlanetary Networking) and Dr. Scott Pace (Deputy Assistant to the President and Executive Secretary of the National Space Council) will lead the discussion.

Scott Burleigh (NASA/JPL’s chief Delay & Disruption Tolerant Networking architect) will be moderating the discussion. There will be some time at the end for questions.

Bios for the panelists and the moderator can be viewed here:

The webinar will be recorded for those who cannot attend directly. A link to that recording will be posted to this website.


Discussion Questions:

1.     Do we need a governance model for the Internet in space (what will become the Solar System Internet, or SSI)?

2.     If so, what kind of framework should such a governance model have?

a.     Who are the stake holders?

b.     What kinds of input should they receive?

c.     What kinds of enforcement are available (or desirable)?

d.     Do existing organizations or models exist that could be useful in forming a framework for moving forward?


IPNSIG 2020 Board Election Results

The results are in from our secure voting platform. Your Board members are:

Candidate Percentage of total votes cast
Vint Cerf 77.17%
Mike Snell 55.43%
Scott Burleigh 51.09%
Yosuke Kaneko 39.13%
Keith Scott 39.13%

Thank you to all members who submitted themselves as candidates! Thanks to all those members who voted. Congratulations to the new Board!

The new board will meet as soon as calendars can be coordinated. They will discuss IPNSIG’s direction for the next year and potential projects to propose to the membership. They will also select Officers for the next year. The minutes to that meeting will be emailed out to members.

The board member page to the website will be updated as soon as new officers are selected.

Space Internet Governance Webinar Coming Soon

Save space on your calendar for this timely panel discussion:

Date: Friday, August 7th, 2020

Time: 1100 – 1230 hours Eastern Daylight Savings Time (EDT)


Dr. Vinton Cerf (one of the “Fathers of the Internet” and one of the driving forces in InterPlanetary Networking) and Dr. Scott Pace (Deputy Assistant to the President and Executive Secretary of the   National Space Council) will lead the discussion.

Scott Burleigh (NASA/JPL’s chief Delay & Disruption Tolerant Networking architect) will be moderating the discussion. There will be some time at the end for questions.

Bios for the panelists and the moderator can be viewed here:

The webinar will be recorded for those who cannot attend directly

Publication of the link for the webinar on this website has been pushed out to Tuesday, August 4th. We are working to expand the number of attendees with a different platform. Email with the link will also be sent out to IPNSIG members.

Discussion Questions:

1.     Do we need a governance model for the Internet in space (what will become the Solar System Internet, or SSI)?

2.     If so, what kind of framework should such a governance model have?

a.     Who are the stake holders?

b.     What kinds of input should they receive?

c.     What kinds of enforcement are available (or desirable)?

d.     Do existing organizations or models exist that could be useful in forming a framework for moving forward?


Candidates for IPNSIG Board Election 2020

IPNSIG is electing a new Board! Candidate profiles are posted below. Only IPNSIG members can vote. If you are an IPNSIG member, you will be emailed instructions about where, when and how you can securely cast your vote.

Candidates (in alphabetical order):

Candidates for IPNSIG Board Election


Scott C. Burleigh


Scott Burleigh is a Principal Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, where he has been developing flight mission software since 1986.  A founding member of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Research Group of the Internet Research Task Force, Mr. Burleigh was a co-author of the DTN Architecture definition (Internet RFC 4838).  He also co-authored the specification for version 6 of the DTN Bundle Protocol (BP, Internet RFC 5050) supporting automated data forwarding through a network of intermittently connected nodes, and is now lead author for the specification for BP version 7.  Mr. Burleigh leads the development and maintenance of implementations of BP and related protocols that are designed for integration into deep space mission flight software, with the long-term goal of enabling deployment of a delay-tolerant Solar System Internet.  Mr. Burleigh has received the NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal and four NASA Space Act Board Awards for his work on the design and implementation of these communication protocols.

I would like to see IPNSIG focus on Imagining the Solar System Internet.  How will be like the Internet (in the way we deploy it, use it, regulate it) and how will it be different?  How will it be used, and how will it (inevitably) be misused?  How will we defend it from attack, and how will we defend users from the SSI when it is weaponized?  What technologies will it require that we don’t have yet, or that we have but don’t yet have enough experience with?  How can we model and prototype the SSI to test everything we imagine?  And what other changes in world economy and politics will it trigger (if any)?  Let’s discuss.



Vinton G. Cerf

Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist



At Google, Vint Cerf contributes to global ity.policy and business development and continued spread of the Internet. Widely known as one of the “Fathers of the Internet,” Cerf is the co-designer of the TCP/IP protocols and the architecture of the Internet. He has served in executive positions at the Internet Society, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, the American Registry for Internet Numbers, MCI, the Corporation for National Research Initiatives and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and on the faculty of Stanford University. Vint Cerf sat on the US National Science Board and is a Visiting Scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Cerf is a Foreign Member of the Royal Society and Swedish Academy of Engineering, Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, American Association for the advancement of Science, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, British Computer Society, Worshipful Companies of Information Technologists and Stationers and is a member of the National Academies of Engineering and Science. Cerf is a recipient of numerous awards and commendations in connection with his work on the Internet, including the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, US National Medal of Technology, the Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering, the Prince of Asturias Award, the Japan Prize, the Charles Stark Draper award, the ACM Turing Award, the Legion d’Honneur and 29 honorary degrees.



assumita chiremba

assumita_national_berlin_library3I have not much to say but that I have just been elected my local ISOC Chapter Head- Membership and Capacity Building and that I have been humbled by the effects of the COVID-19 both locally and across the globe. I tend to see “beyond the horizon” and with a 9 year school going girl I look at her with much empathy and sympath for they have a future which we cannot now describe for them. What the COVID-19 has brought is not only despair but much anticipation for everyone. Hence I am inspired to have to volunteer in helping in the migration (with our young generation to that new era) – beyond COVID-19, I believe I just have to volunteer in anything “tech”. I have always followed I.T. trends but now i feel I need to lead but on a voluntary path, and in the process, learn more about IPNSIG

I am an inspired woman. i believe in inspiring my girl children and more girls too through action. I am also currently volunteering and  campaigning  (on behalf of

Inspiring Girls International - an organisation dedicated to raising the aspirations of young girls around the world by connecting them with female role models.

) for “a collection of short films of women across the world speaking about ther career paths and personal journeys -so that all girls, everywhere, can be inspired by amazing role models!” -and thus SIG women board members are welcome to participate too

I do strongly believe that there is no other appropriate time and “station” to jump onboard  the “IoT”n era except now through working with the SIG Board.

With thanks and gratitude

assumita chiremba

(ISOC Member and  – Zimbabwe Chapter)


Oscar Garcia

Oscar_GarciaDear Colleagues of the InterPlanetary Networking Special Interest Group

Allow me to introduce myself to you – my name is Oscar Garcia born in Argentina 61 years ago. I am  currently living in Mar Del Plata, Argentina with both Argentine and Spanish citizenships.

I am president of Digital Health Information Network (DHIN Inc.), based in Fort Lauderdale Florida, DHIN Inc. represents Unified Medical Records System, which was developed by myself and my team since 2000. Our technology for health care records and communications for health care received the World Summit on the Information Society Award for Argentina in 2004.

I have been in computer software, system analysis and development and implementation of technology and communications since 1984, and in Internet technology since 1995.

I program in several languages, and administer servers, networking and databases as well as  mobile Apps development, and some specific technologies that I have developed for health care and interconnection between devices.

I have been the chief information officer in companies covering from Miami to Patagonia and in the Public Sector, developed and set the Municipality Library system in Mar del Plata with 30 Public Libraries connected.

I was the local host of Icann 2005 in Mar del Plata, when our team was recognized by ICANN board for the technical support and tourism and hospitality operation..

Letter from Vinton Cerf.


I have participated in several organizations over the years.

I am chairman in Sister Cities Mar del Plata and participate in Sister Cities meetings in Greater Fort Lauderdale Sister Cities International in Florida.

I was appointed as a representative of Fort Lauderdale when I visited Spain in the Official Mission of the President of Argentina which was highlighted by Sister Cities International in Washington.


I am attending nowadays the meeting organized by ISOC about the new approaches to the Internet.

I am also a Karate teacher, I started training karate in 1971, and I am currently affiliated to Shorin Ryu Karate Do international

I have an accounting title in Argentina and I know about administration and law enough to manage the several companies that I’ve developed along the years.

As a kid I won the mathematics olympics at my level in Argentina.

I speak and write english and spanish and can talk in brazilian portuguese reasonably well.

In the different organizations I have participated along the years I have always been proactive and I like to help and make things move forward.

I am used to participate and give lectures and public presentations

I’ve travelled in Official States missions with presidents and have talked with presidents and Kings,

I have also participated in the development of national technology plans and have developed  the Mar del Plata Technology Cluster in its early stage.


I’ve been passionate about Space since listening to the moon landing besides my mother when I was 10. I’ve always been following Space exploration and have been a reader for many years of most of the Science Fiction written by the time.

When I hosted Icann in Mar del Plata, on our first talk with Vinton Cerf, remember it was 2005, I asked him about satellite gateways that I’ve heard about, and Vint, said, yes the Interplanetary Network. We had an informal long talk with Vinton and my team about the just born IPN into which we were all excited to know about.

Over the years we have developed a relationship with Vinton and I’ve been following the development of IPN during all this time.

Some time ago and following what Elon Musk, the late Paul Allen, Richard Branson and Jeff Bezos, were doing, I was very excited to discover that IPN was moving forward again, at least publicly and up to my knowledge.

That’s when I requested to be part of the ISOC IPNSIG..

In last correspondence with Vinton, last year about Unified Medical Records establishing in the United States, I told him that I wanted to set up Medical Records in the first Mars Station, considering that I designed UMRS with a fault tolerance model in year 2001 to prevent that medicals records were not available in case of Internet failure or bad connectivity areas.


I am open to travel, even to space, I am in good condition and I would be honored to dedicate part of my time and abilities serving in the Board of the InterPlanetary Networking Special Interest Group, to help this great endeavor for mankind.

I consider that multiple policies and decisions would need to be set regarding this new beginning in Space exploration, that will raise new opportunities and new challenges as well.

The current pandemic situation shows the need for human civilization to be established in Space to keep evolving to new heights.

IPN is going to be the bridge that connects the human nodes across Space and I want to be part of this.


Thank you very much for your time.


Oscar Garcia


Koshy  G. George


Respected Dignitaries at IPNSIG,


I am fortunate to know more about  IPNSIG  and the upcoming Elections to its Board and thank you for the same.


I am a  Management Consultant  in the practice of  Project Funding( Joint Ventures, etc) , Business Strategy and Resources Consulting. I was featured in The World Bank website :  and in their project report called, Doing Business 2008.

As an UN SDG Action Partner,  a copy of my profile, sent to  the Respectful  Vinton G.Cerf  and  is also published at LinkedIn website, for your kind attention and perusal. I had also written a Goodwill letter to the Transition Team of the United States Government on November 22nd, 2016.


As a Board Member of IPNSIG, I believe we can synergize our expertise to broaden the horizon of DTN Enabled Near Earth Architecture (Also know as Store, Carry and Forward Architecture). Let us explore the options for this synergy.

Here is a link to my  profile:

Thank you,

Yours Truly,

Koshy  G. George



Folli Herbert


Screenshot_20200703-193726My name is Folli Herbert AMOUZOUGAN from Togo. I have got an university diploma in Electrical Engineering and Computing in Benin. I am fluent in English, French and Morse. I can read and write korean language, and have some elementary knowledges in german and chinese.

Folli is the Messengers of Peace program Coordinator of the World Organization of Scouting Movement.

I am Electronic and Computer Scientist with over 8 years of experience in Computing and Networks related field. I have completed an internship program at the IT Direction of Port Autonome de Lome (Togo’s Harbour) and also worked at Togolese National Electoral Commission as Technician (preventive and curative maintenance of the biometric enrollment kit) from 2013 to 2018; Supervisor Assistant in 2019 and Supervisor (supervise technical and administrative aspects of people’ enrollment) in 2019. The same year, I have completed an internship program with the United States Peace Corps Togo at the IT Department and have acted as IT Back up. I also worked as a biometric data collector for Togo National Health Insurance in 2020. Concerning the TECH environment I always filled free to put myself to work.


I have been a passionate about Internet of Things since 2010 and I have volunteered for some fablabs in Togo and took part in many hackathons and task forces. I am an active member of ISOC Togo chapter and I am one the 2020 chapter volunteers training fellows on the Mutually Agreed Norms for Routing Security initiative. Through this program, I have acquired new skills that can help me to contribute meaningfully to the InterPlanetary Networking SIG and to learn faster about DTN and Space systems. At the end of the training I wrote an article that can be read trhough the following link : .


I want to run for the Board of the IPNSIG first to serve, to learn and to make my knowledge and myself useful to the Board. I think that IoTs will take part in the future of the Internet and as stakeholders, we can work in shaping the future of the Internet by strengthening and developing the Internet.

A stronger and safe Internet is still possible if we work hard to make the ISOC Global’s 2020 Action Plan a reality.


I am open heart and available to serve the IPNSIG!


Thank you!




Folli Herbert AMOUZOUGAN



Yosuke Kaneko



My name is Yosuke Kaneko from JAXA.

I am passionate about the future of IPN and very interested in becoming a board member of the IPNSIG.


Here are some background on who I am.

2002 to 2016:  ISS/JEM(Japanese Experiment Module) Project, Communication and Avionics engineer, Flight Director for JEM

2017 to 2019:  ISS Program, Exploration Programs (Gateway, Moon, Mars), Japanese Representative for ICSIS (International Communication System Interoperability Standards)

2020 :   JAXA Headquarters, Strategic Planning Division


My Challenges throughout my lifetime career is to create an Interplanetary Networking Architecture that could one day become a part of our social activities in the next 10 – 100+ years, supporting exploration, science, commercial activities and just connecting everything together for the benefit of humanity.

I have been heavily engaged in the Space Agency business up to date, but recently I come to realize the importance of bringing many of the initiatives including Government, Space Agencies, CCSDS, IETF/IRTF, Commercial Space Sector and Private Service Providers and more, in a single venue, to discuss their needs, requirements, and the driving technology to be developed that constitute a sustainable IPN architecture.


IPNSIG is the perfect venue and the leading initiative to discuss such framework, governance and I am thrilled to be a part of such venture towards the benefit of humanity.



Yosuke Kaneko


Amos Koffi


Dear all,
My name is Koffi Kouadio Amos
Today I present my candidacy for the position for the position of member of the board of directors which is in your department. It has been more than two (02) years that I have held the status of president within the ISOC CHAPTER CÔTE D’IVOIRE, and this experience encourages me to take up new professional challenges.
With a degree in computer science, I joined the Internet company to learn more and be an example for my community. Among my professional achievements, I have received distinctions for my integration and learning skills more within this department.
My current role involves new challenges to be met and to always keep the bar high. I have done a lot of activity within my chapter and my specialty, and my results are regularly praised by my hierarchy.
I am also responsible as a young CHEF for a dedicated site and in a local company to meet daily challenges. At RMO and AERIA, my corporate culture and my team spirit have always pushed me to give the best of myself.
I would particularly appreciate being a member of IPNSIG.
For more details on my background and my qualifications. You can contact me by email at or via my website
I remain available to answer all your questions.


Le ven. 26 juin 2020 à 08:46, Amos Koffi <> a écrit :

Thank you!


Alberto Montilla


AMcroppedDr. Alberto Montilla


Director, Product Management. Collaboration Technology Group. Cisco


Alberto Montilla leads Cisco headsets and next generation endpoints business. His group focuses in redefining the collaboration experiences headsets and endpoints deliver to enterprise users and customers.


Alberto has been with Cisco for 14 years. He accumulates extensive experience in working with Small, Medium and large Businesses. As product manager, he lead the creation and growth of multiple Cisco products and services including Cisco Webex Calling, Cisco Contact Center Cloud solutions, Cisco SPA phone portfolio, and several Small and Medium Businesses Voice products. In addition, Alberto is an active diversity leader as Executive Council Member of Conexión, Cisco Latino Network Employee Group.


Before joining Cisco, Alberto held multiple engineering positions in the mobile industry, in companies including Motorola, Nokia and Bellsouth. He actively participated in the development of Third Generation (3G) Mobile Telecommunications standards, with more than 30 contributions to the 3GPP specifications.


Alberto holds a Doctor of Networking Engineering degree, including a researcher certification, from the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain, and an MBA from the Instituto de Estudios Bursátiles, Madrid, Spain. In his personal time, he is playing field hockey with his family, cooking a paella with friends, advising startups, or reading about his favorite topics: innovation, space, and technology.

We are entering an era of increased space exploration, for science, and also for commercial, entertainment and even for permanent settlement purposes. I believe the Interplanetary Internet is going to be one of the most critical factors driving this expansion, so we must focus in understanding, defining and experimenting how the Interplanetary Internet needs to evolve to support a larger variety of use cases, what additional challenges it will impose on our current understanding of the Internet technologies and frameworks.



Keith Scott


KScottBorderDr. Keith Scott worked for NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1997-1998, where he used ACTS mobile terminal data to characterize the effects of Ka-band satellite channels on TCP and SCPS-TP performance. Since joining The MITRE Corporation in 1998, Keith has worked on a number of projects for NASA and the DoD concerning communications in stressed environments including satellite and tactical data networks. He began working on the Interplanetary Internet in 1998, implemented a precursor to the current Bundle Protocol, and is co-author of RFC5050.  Keith currently serves as chair of the  Space Internetworking Systems Delay Tolerant Networking Working Group in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems that is standardizing DTN protocols for use in civilian space missions. Keith is also a member of the Internet Research Task Force and Internet Engineering Task Force’s Delay Tolerant Networking working groups.



Where I’d like to see the SIG go:

Immediate: I’d like to find some way to involve more folks in hands-on experimentation.  I think we should develop documentation around one or more of the DTN SDKs from the 5050bis RFC (BP version 6) and use that to entice developers to work on sample applications.  This probably requires a working and well-documented Android DTN implementation, which the SIG could work on.


Medium term: Develop some ‘out of the box’ applications that would support human space exploration (e.g. chat / PTT audio / PTT video, file transfer, database synchronization).  We could then pitch these to NASA and the international community as exemplars to demonstrate the utility of DTN in the space environment.




Timothy Shava


My name is Timothy Shava ,  Zimbabwe I am interested to be board member for IPNSIG and have been in tech business for 8 years mainly introducing trending technologies in Southern Africa (Zambia, Mozambique. Zimbabwe, South Africa and Namibia)

I have been leading the training of digital literacy in primary and secondary education. I am also a chief facilitator for free domain registration under the University of Zimbabwe.
My passion in Robotics has started a long way with obsession in schools launching ICT education and the curriculum development in Artificial Intelligence  and projects coordination.

I have developed an interest in InterPlanetary Networking and believe in education  the younger generation   and get equipped with all necessary tools to shape the future of InterPlanetaty networking technologies. As a board member, I  believe i can contribute through facilitating training.

Your favourable training will be highly appreciated

Timothy Shava



Mike Snell


GoogleProfile-2Although he freely admits to being a Liberal Arts major gone bad, Mike Snell has spent almost twenty years in various IT management and leadership positions at Cisco Systems  and consulting/contracting firms. His technical interests include cybersecurity and technical business process change engineering. Before transitioning to an IT career, Mike worked for Compaq, Tandem Computers and Digital Equipment Corporation in various facilities and corporate real estate management responsibilities. He also ran his own facilities management consulting firm.


Back in late 2011, Mike and his colleague, Konstantin Kalaitzidis, proposed to the board of the San Francisco Bary Area Chapter of the Internet Society that they launch a project to revitalize the inactive InterPlanetary Networking Special Interest Group (IPNSIG). They agreed, and Konstantin and Mike collaborated with global technical SME’s (including Vint Cerf, Scott Burleigh the late Adrian Hook and Keith Scott) to set about doing that. By January of 2014 IPNSIG had been granted Chapter status. Mike served on the original board of IPNSIG as Secretary/Treasurer. Mike later served as President. Mike was also a board member of the San Francisco Bay Area Chapter of the Internet Society, serving as Secretary, and then as President.


With the IETF standards working group for DTN progressing steadily towards the official adoption of the Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) suite of protocols as Internet standards, and the work of CCSDS (the global standards setting organization for civilian space flight) steadily cranking out DTN standards AND the adoption of DTN for all communications (including operational comms) for the International Space Station—one might think there’s not that much to be done in the field. But that is so wrong! And I think that IPNSIG can really help in at least three ways:


  • We can facilitate the continued development and testing of DTN by encouraging, perhaps even sponsoring the development of useful DTN-based terrestrial applications for constrained network environments. The time is really ripe for this with the relatively recent porting of ION (NASA’s implementation of DTN) to Android. Android smart phones can provide a cheap, convenient platform for interconnecting to a DTN network, and potentially even functioning as a DTN “data mule” in a DTN solution.
  • We can identify compelling use cases for the unique value that DTN brings to the table. There are so many constrained terrestrial environments where an Internet connection is simply not available, or too expensive, or too subject to disruption and delay to be reliable. I think the marriage of a compelling problem set to be solved by DTN, along with proposed solutions and even POC’s would go a long way toward generation enthusiasm and even product development of terrestrial DTN solutions. It’s time to go beyond the experimental to the practical, and Mike thinks we can help.
  • Finally, I think we can start the conversation about how to provide governance of the Internet in space. Commercialization and exploitation are gaining momentum. New national players with space ambitions are launching unmanned lunar missions. While the realization of what Scott Burleigh calls the Solar System Internet is still decades away, the time is ripe for starting the governance discussion. That’s why we’ve organized the Space Internet Governance webinar next month. Mike wants to help continue that conversation.



David Terrazas


David Terrazas started his graduate studies at the University of Texas at El Paso, USA. He then obtained his M.Sc. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Manitoba, Canada, in 2013. He received the Best Paper Award at the 10th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing 2011 (ICCI*CC’11). He also obtained his B.Eng. in Mechatronic Engineering with honours from the Technological Institute of Cuauhtémoc City (ITCC), México, in 2005. During his studies at the ITCC, he obtained the Cimarrón Award in two occasions, and the Governor Award (from Lic. Jose Reyes Baeza Terrazas) both recognizing his academic excellence. He is now pursuing his Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering in Canada. He has been awarded with the Edward R. Toporeck Graduate Fellowship in Engineering in 2014.

He is a member of both the Delta Research Group and the Cognitive Systems Laboratory in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Manitoba. He has published 15 research articles in international conferences and recognized journals. His research in cybersecurity is outstanding and consequently two patents have been filed close to the culmination of his PhD.

His professional experience involves mechatronic applications and mining incursions in Scotland, Germany, and México.

His research interests include advanced signal processing, aerospace, cryptography, cryptology, cybersecurity, dynamical systems, microprocessor interfacing, and reconfigurable computing.

He is member of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), the Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the Internet Society (ISOC), the ISOC Chapters (Canada, InterPlanetary Networking, and Mexico), the ISOC Communities (Encryption for Everyone, Internet for Education, Latin Community, and Open Standards Everywhere Project), the ISOC Special Interest Groups (Blockchain, Community Networks, Cybersecurity, Internet-of-Food (IoF), and Internet-of-Things (IoT)), and of the Radio Amateur of Canada (RAC).

He has participated as a reviewer for articles submitted to the technical committees: Electronic Systems on a Chip, and Industrial Informatics, both part of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society.

As part of the InterPlanetary Networking Special Interest Group, I would like to see more awareness about the availability of these technologies and the implications for humanity. Similarly, consider cybersecurity potential threats in these communications and how they could be mitigated. As of now there are many persons that have never used Internet, from those that have used Internet few know about interplanetary networking capabilities.

Internet in Space Governance Webinar

Format: panel discussion with questions from audience


Dr. Vinton Cerf (one of the “fathers of the Internet” and a driving force in InterPlanetary Networking

Dr. Scott Pace (Executive Director, Space Policy Council, Space Commerce Dept., US Department of Commerce)

Date: Friday, August 7th

Time: 11:00 a.m to 12:30 p.m. EDT.

Discussion Questions:

1.     Do we need a governance model for the Internet in space (what will become the Solar System Internet, or SSI)?

2.     If so, what kind of framework should such a governance model have?

a.     Who are the stake holders?

b.     What kinds of input should they receive?

c.     What kinds of enforcement are available (or desirable)?

d.     Do existing organizations or models exist that could be useful in forming a framework for moving forward?

Speaker bios will be up shortly on Dr. Pace’s presentation on Space Policy from a previous IPN speakers conference can be viewed at:

More details will be published soon.

DTN and the IoT

DTN and the IoT

Increasingly, communication over the Internet is not facilitating communication between human beings, but between things. In fact, it’s estimated that by 2022, 45% of the traffic over the Internet will be between and amongst things, rather than people. By 2020, 212 billion “Things” will be connected to the Internet.

While this is impressive, it should also be somewhat alarming. Using the Internet as the glue to facilitate all of these machine-to-machine interactions necessarily assumes that the end-to-end continuous data flow that allows TCP/IP to work for the traditional Internet exists in the machine-to machine environment. And that’s often not true.

Let’s think about the kinds of devices being connected, why they’re being connected, where they’re being connected, and what their capabilities are. Many people might assume that the largest market for IoT would be retail. After all, we’re bombarded by commercials pushing the latest home security systems—or even home management systems that integrate voice-activated power and HVAC controls with advanced security systems that not only arm alarm systems, but also physically secure the home. Retail IoT systems like these are only forecasted to reach 1% of the total value of the IoT market by the year 2025

The biggest potential market for IoT appears to be in the health care industry. Connected devices can play a significant role in healthcare applications through embedding sensors and actuators in patients and their medicine for monitoring and tracking purposes. IoT is already in wide use in clinics to gather and analyze data from diagnostic sensors and lab equipment. There is an increasingly large movement towards embedding devices in patients themselves to monitor health and/or actuators implanted in the patients’ bodies. These are necessarily small, low power devices that are unpredictably mobile—all factors contributing to disruption or delay.

The second largest market for IoT is forecasted to be industrial manufacturing. Not only have robotics been widely deployed to reduce human labor costs, but there has also been an explosion of sensors that can detect errors immediately and generate repair requests complete with necessary maintenance and repair information. Except for certain environments, traditional Internet infrastructure is readily available.

Third place in the forecasted IoT market is monitoring the production and distribution of electrical power. This means placing devices in many locations far removed from traditional Internet infrastructure, or even cellular infrastructure. Maintenance and repair vehicles are mobile. Again, an environment in which network connectivity is not guaranteed end-to-end.

These are just a few of the emerging markets, use cases and environments in the IoT field. Most of the standards work in these areas have addressed the need for low power wireless communications for different applications. Efforts to deal with disruption and delay have been proprietary, and do not have the foundational assumption that the network will be partitioned in some way that disrupts end-to-end communication. As an emerging IETF standard, DTN presents an opportunity to provide consistent network automation enabling the expansion of the IoT into constrained network environments.

Our next blog will dive a little deeper into the IoT, highlighting how DTN could facilitate the communication between the edge of the Internet and the often network-constrained “Things” that need to connect with it.

This blog is a product of the usual suspects: Scott Burleigh (NASA/JPL); Keith Scott (Mitre Corp./CCSDS); E. Jay Wyatt (NASA/JPL) and Mike Snell (IPNSIG)

How humans will bring the Internet to space

IPNSIG board member Vint Cerf brought this nice article about DTN to our attention…

It’s slanted towards a general audience, and provides some historical background of DTN development. It emphasizes the need to maintain the open architecture of DTN, and stresses the importance of the security features being built into the protocol suite (for more information about the Bundle Security Protocol and how it works, see the security section of the DTN Primer at: DTN_Tutorial_v3.2). The article also features excerpts of interviews with long-time IPNSIG friends Leigh Torgerson (NASA/JPL) and David Israel (NASA Goddard SFC).

TCP/IP for Gateway

TCP/IP for Gateway?

We’ve been hearing that there are some within NASA advocating for the use of TCP/IP for space data communications on the Gateway lunar missions. At first glance, this might seem to make sense— after all, the Near-Rectilinear Halo Orbit planned for Gateway would guarantee that its line-of-sight with earth would never be interrupted. While it would seem that RTT between ground stations on earth and Gateway’s communications relay module would be problematic for latency-sensitive applications, TCP/IP would probably work. Kind of.

However, we think it would be ill advised for reasons other than interactive voice and video performance issues: the whole point of Gateway is to meet the objectives laid out in Space Policy Directive-1:

Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations.

If the reason for Gateway is to support eventual human missions to Mars and other interplanetary destinations, it makes no sense to use anything other than the communication protocols designed to support those missions: in particular the DTN suite. Benefits resulting from the use of DTN for Gateway include:

  • Gaining experience with a protocol suite suitable for further exploration beyond lunar orbit.
  • Built-in resilience to communications disruptions that do occur, e.g. due to weather effects on Earth if Ka-band or optical links are used.
  • More efficient use of the Gateway-to-Ground links, since Bundle Protocol convergence layers can be tuned for the characteristics of the links (e.g. using alternate congestion control mechanisms and hence avoiding the issues with running TCP over high bandwidth-delay-product paths).
  • Flexibility in the use of ground stations to communicate with Gateway, especially when humans are not present.  DTN’s store-and-forward capability will enable more flexible allocation of ground stations to communicate with Gateway, since data will be stored if all available ground stations need to be used for other tasks.

Because so many operational benefits accrue from the use of DTN vs. TCP/IP, and because DTN aligns with the overall objectives specified in Space Policy Directive-1, we at IPNSIG highly recommend that NASA elect to use DTN for all space data communications on the Gateway missions.

Webinar: Hacking the Extraterrestrial Internet

Webinar: Hacking the Extraterrestrial Internet - Where Fiction Meets Reality


IPNSIG Vice Chair Scott Burleigh will be featured in an Ethical Hacking webinar this Thursday, June27th, starting at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. Here’s the blurb from the Ethical Hacking website:

Normal SciFi glosses over a glaring problem with comms through the vastness of space… The Internet and TCP/IP suffer a massive self-imposed DOS attack with any disruptions for more than a few seconds. Ignoring that fact doesn’t cut it for bestselling author, Daniel Suarez. How do we hack it to make it work for a realistic, near future novel on mining asteroids? Enter Scott Burleigh and an international team from NASA, other national space agencies and industry. They already did it! It’s called DTN. Join them for details, security considerations and how to get involved in this FREE EH-Net Live! webinar on Thurs June 27, 2019 at 1:00 PM US Eastern.

The webinar is free, but you must register to attend. Here’s the link:


Motivation for DTN: Terrestrial Use Cases

Many people new to InterPlanetary Networking are surprised to discover that DTN is also considered effective for many terrestrial use cases. That’s because the same kind of constraints exist in many networking environments right here on planet earth. These primarily include disruptions and delays—or perhaps even the absence of traditional Internet infrastructure that would make network communications via TCP/IP unfeasible or prohibitively expensive.

It’s not too difficult to envision some of those environments. Some constraints are inherent in the communication environment itself:

  • Like water as a communication medium. RF waves do not propagate well, but sound waves do, which are incredibly slow and whose speed varies unpredictably with the density of the water column.
  • Or think of underground applications like mining. Cable can be expensive to lay and subject to disruption through unintentional damage by mining equipment. RF does not penetrate the earth.
  • First responders searching through rubble are subject to unpredictable disruptions caused by loss of LOS with wireless signals.
  • Battlefield sensors cannot maintain constant RF contact for security reasons.
  • Finally, many regions that would benefit from Internet services find them unavailable (or prohibitively expensive) simply because they are not located where traditional Internet infrastructure exists. A look at any light pollution map shows you how much of the world does not have ready access to traditional Internet infrastructure.

Light Pollution



Examples of experimental implementations of DTN to overcome these constraints include:

  • Providing basic Internet services to reindeer herders in the Arctic Circle in Sweden.
  • Monitoring air quality in a karst cave in Romania.
  • Monitoring the cardiac health of first responders during emergency operations
  • Providing basic Internet services to remote villages in Africa that had no access to traditional network infrastructure

An area of particular interest to the DTN community is the Internet of Things (IoT), where communication is primarily amongst things and not people: sensors in buildings, roadways, on farms and even in our bodies. Because of the mobility of many of these Things, and limitations in power and signal strength, continuous end-to-end connectivity is either not achievable at all, or not maintainable. Since DTN assumes that such continuity does not exist, it can perform a valuable function in the world of IoT (sometimes call the “DTN of Things”)

Our next blog will dive into DTN’s potential role in IoT in more detail.

This blog is a product of the usual suspects: Scott Burleigh (NASA/JPL); Keith Scott (Mitre Corp./CCSDS and Mike Snell (IPNSIG)


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